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History of Printing in Montenegro 

Fragment from the First Printed Cirillic Slavic Book (1494)To help counter Roman Catholic and Islamic influence, a Montenegrin ruler, Ivan Crnojevic, obtained in 1494 a printing press from Venice, which was operated by a monk named Makarije. The first book printed on the Obod press by Makarije was the Orthodox service book, the Octoechos (Oktoih), which is the first printed Cyrillic book of the South Slavs. Thus, only 39 years after Gutenberg's Bible, Montenegro - its capital a military camp with only one stone building: the monastery - had its own press and Cyrillic books.  

The already mentioned monk Makarije probably learned the printing craft from a Kotor printer, Andrija Paltasic who was working in Venice at the time, and who printed about forty classical Latin works (including Tacitus and Cicero) between 1477 and 1495. Besides the printer Paltasic, Bozidar Vukovic from Podgorica and his son Vincenco, also worked in Venice, producing books in the Cyrillic alphabet. This was of considerable importance since these filled the gap left by the closing of the Crnojevic press in 1496, in consequence of Turkish attacks, and the departure of monk-printer Makarije for Walachia, where he continued his work. 

The others publishers, copyists, and printers of the time include publisher Jerolim Zagurij from Kotor, printer Jakov Krajkov from Sofia, Kar Trifun from Skoplje (1569-70), and publisher and printer Bartolo Ginami-Alberti from Venice (1638) (Nadezda Sindik, Izdavaci Stampari Prepisivaci, Obod, Cetinje, 1996). 

The second press in Montenegro was set by Petar II Petrovic Njegos in Cetinje in 1834. During a Turkish siege in 1852, Prince Danilo Petrovic was obliged to melt down the letters and lead for bullets, but in 1858 a new press was obtained. Since that time, books, almanacs with literary contribution, magazines and newspapers have been printed with scarcely an interruption.  

'CRNOGORAC' The first Montengrin Newspaper (1871) The first literary - scientific annual publication in Montenegro was Grlica (1835 to 1839). The first newspaper, Crnogorac, was founded in 1871. In July of the same year, a separate supplement, Crnogorka, appeared this being the first literary paper. Cetinje, a capital with only 3 000 inhabitants, thus had three papers.  

Crnogorac changed its name to Glas Crnogorca in 1873. It was published weekly until 1922. In the last five years (1917-1922) it was the voice of the Montenegrin government in exile. In later years two new rebellious journals and one of the opposition started to be published in Niksic: Nevesinje (1898-1899) and Onogost (1899-1900), Narodna Misao (1906-1907). The printing presses of Narodna Misao were demolished by the supporters of the King Nicholas I.  

In the wake of the WWI, the Cetinje's liberal intelegencia established new papers. The semi-illegal Vjesnik was published from June to September 1914, while the group of intellectuals led, by Milo Vujovic, established Dnevni List which was published from 30. VIII 1914 to 16. III 1915. In addition, the bookshop of A. Rajnvajna attempted to publish Dnevne Novosti (16.VI- 30. VII 1914) which were banned soon, and forced to change the name into Telegrafske Vijesti (15 editions), and subsequently into Najnovije Telegrafske Vijesti (5 editions) which were finally banned on 27. VIII 1914.  

After the WWI (1918) the Rajnvajna's bookshop started the daily papers Novo Doba (4. XI 1918 - 21. II 1919) which later was published three times a week until 9. V 1919 when it stopped being published. The Novo Doba turned out to be the only Montenegrin daily published between the Great Wars.  

From 1919 to April 1941, many political papers of various political forces in Montenegro were published:  

  • Narodna rijec (Democratic Party of Ljubo Davidovic - Cetinje 1919-29)
  • Crna Gora (Radical Party - Cetinje 1920-29) 
  • Slobodna Misao (Agrar Party - Niksic 1923-41)
  • Glas Naroda (Agrar Party - Niksic 1926-29)
  • Crnogorac (Montengro Federalist Party - Podgorica 1924-27) 
  • Radni Narod (PK KPJ - Podgorica 1939)... 
After January the 6th 1929 ('Sestojanuarska diktatura') several papers were established:  
  • Zetski glasnik (Cetinje 1931-41) 
  • Narodni list (Cetinje 1935-39) 
  • Pregled (Cetinje 1929-30) 
  • Epoha (Cetinje 1930-31) 
  • Zeta (Podgorica 1930-41) 
  • Cetinjski odjek (Cetinje 1932-33) 
The professional journalism however, was overall poor, and there were few attempts from time to time to publish something (e.g.):  
  • Uciteljski list (Cetinje 1905) 
  • Trgovacki list and Zemljoradnik (Niksic 1907) 
  • Domaci list (Cetinje 1912) 
  • Poljoprivrednik (Cetinje 1925) 
  • Trgovacka rijec (Podgorica 1925-26) 
  • Omladina (Cetinje 1925-27) 
Only one satirical was published in Montenegro;  
  • Mali Radojica (Cetinje 1926-27).
During the WWII there were several papers published. The most important are: 
  • Saopstenja (Partisan's military headquarter - 26 VII 1941-17 IV 1942)
  • Narodna borba (PK KPJ for Montenegro - IX 1941 - 6 VI 1944) 
  • Omladinski pokret (Montenegrin youth - 15 IX 1941)
  • Rijec slobode (CASNO - Jun 1944) 
  • Glas Sandzaka ( Jun 1944) 
  • Nova Boka (NF Boka - 1945) 
  • Nasa zena (AFZ CG - 1 VI 1944) 
  • Pobjeda (NF CG 24 X 1944) 
Until 1945 Boka had its own papers:  
  • Boka, 
  • Dnevni vjesnik, and 
  • Glas Boke
After the WWII the most important papers in Montenegro was Pobjeda and to extent Omladinski pokret. Nowadays Pobjeda is the only Montenegrin daily and is under the Government control. The most influential journal is the independent weekly Monitor. There are also other papers like Univerzitetska Rijec, Liberal (Liberal alliance of Montenegro) Onogost, Grafiti, local papers etc.  


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Montenet 1997 
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Last updated  August 1997