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Andrija Rackovic
MONTENEGRO'S LOST SOVEREIGNTY
Biography of the last Prime Minister of the Sovereign Kingdom of Montenegro
General Anto Gvozdenovic

(A brief English text appendix to the article appeared in POBJEDA 30 Dec. 2000 "BASTADURI CRNOGORSKE ISTORIJE: DR ANTO GVOZDENOVIC, GENERAL TRI VOJSKE, LJEKAR, DIPLOMATA, GRADJANIN SVIJETA, I PRIJE SVEGA CRNOGORAC")

General Anto GvozdenovicGENERAL DR ANTO GVOZDENOVIC was the last Prime Minister of Montenegro, having 
entered his countries political life late in his career. As a boy the General 
had been sent to St Petersburg by his godfather, King Nicholas I of 
Montenegro, where he was to study in the Russian Military academy. 

Two of King Nicholas's daughters went on to marry Russian Grand Dukes, and 
Anto Gvozdenovic played a role in affairs leading to the marriage of these 
kinsmen. In particular he remained close to Princess Anastasia with whom he 
had often played as a child at the Royal Palace in Cetinje. Princess 
Anastasia's marriage to Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaievitch came in 1907. The 
Grand Duke was the Uncle of Tsar Nicholas II and younger brother of Tsar 
Nicholas I and during the first World War Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial 
Russian Armies. 

General Gvozdenovic remained close to the Imperial family and had large 
estates in the Crimea, he was a noted solider, having fought in eight wars 
and was awarded with the  Russian Imperial Military Order of the Holy Great 
Martyr George the Victorious (St George); a Military Order awarded to 
officers for outstanding gallantry on the field of battle, and with the 
Russian Order of the Saint Apostolic Prince Vladimir (St Vladimir) awarded to 
those who had saved others from mortal danger; to persons who had achieved 
great distinction ââé¬" while the bow on the sword indicated exceptional 
accomplishment while serving in the army. 

The Tsar appointed General Gvozdenovic to the Imperial Russian Privy Counsel 
before his retirement and return to Montenegro. Here he kept a suite of rooms 
at the Grand Hotel, Cetinje, and rebuilt and renovated a family property in 
Vuci Dol. Anto Gvozdenovic kept an apartment in Rome and a permanent suite at 
the Hotel Maurice in Paris for some time. 

On his return King Nicholas appointed the General as Adjutant-ADC and 
personal advisor. The General's family were linked to the Petrovic dynasty, 
originally through the marriage of Pejo Gvozdenovic (born 1756), to Danica 
Petrovic-Njegosh, the widowed sister of Prince-Bishop (later Saint) Peter I.  

The Gvozdenovic line originated from Knez (Prince) Rade Gvozdenovic 
(1672-1750) who was elevated following his heroism at the battle of Tsarev 
Laz 1712, of which a number of famous ballads were written and references 
made by the literary figure Vuk Karadjic, creator of the modern Serb 
language. From Prince Rade came the name Gvozdenovic (Gvozden-ovic meaning 
son of Iron) General Gvozdenovic's grandfather, Knez (Prince) Dumelja 
Gvozdenovic (1813-1866) married Maria Petrovic-Njegosh (as her second 
husband), who was the aunt of King Nicholas I and sister of his father, Grand 
Duke Mirko of Montenegro. The heroism and exploits of Grand Duke Mirko of 
Montenegro and Knez Dumelja were recorded in accounts of the famous battle of 
 Grahavo. General Gvozdenovic's nephew, Peter Gvozdenovic married Joka  
Vukotic, niece of Queen Milena and the Granddaughter of the Montenegrin 
National Hero Sirdar Janko Vukotic. Peter Gvozdenovic was one of the leaders  
of the Christmas 1918 uprising against the occupation of Montenegro.

DR ANTO GVOZDENOVIC, GENERAL IN THREE ARMIES, PHYSICIAN, DIPLOMAT, WORLD 
CITIZEN AND, ABOVE ALL, A MONTENEGRIN

A KNIGHT AND A GENTLEMAN

Velimir Vujacic, Published in the Pobjeda Newspaper - Montenegro 30th 
December 2000.

    The ubiquitous Dr. Anto Gvozdenovic seemed always conscious that he 
wasn't just representing himself when he traveled, but that he was also the 
carrier of Montenegro's centuries-long glory. It was said that through him 
those around him came to respect his fatherland, Montenegro, quite apart from 
the respect they had for him through his own personal military and scholarly 
success,
    General Anto Gvozdenovic is undoubtedly among the most prominent people 
that Montenegro has produced, an exceptional historical personality of the 
mid 19th and the early 20th century. To reach such heights talent and ability 
were ingredients that combined with undoubted courage, along with personal 
sacrifice and a faith in the justice.
    General Gvozdenovic's personality was based on moral strength through 
which he expressed the values of the Montenegrin people, to which Anto 
belonged entirely. He had an iron belief in devoted service to his people and 
nation, regarding these as the highest goals of man. His loyalty and personal 
courage secured him all honors, especially when his country, Montenegro, ran 
into the cataclysmic events of 1918, and his name has rightly taken its place 
among the great names of Montenegro. 
    A world citizen who always declared himself to be a Montenegrin; the 
director of the Historical Museum of Montenegro in Cetinje, Mr. Velimir 
Vujacic with Dr. Djuro Batricevic, author of an exhaustive monograph, "Dr 
Anto Gvozdenovic, General in Three Armies, Montenegrins in the Russo-Japanese 
War," described in detail the life of General Anto Gvozdenovic, leading 
military surgeon, famed general of the Imperial Russian Army, Deputy Chief of 
the French Army Medical Corps, General-Adjutant (ADC) to  King Nicholas I of 
Montenegro, first and last Montenegrin ambassador to the U.S. and, following 
the death of King Nicholas, the last Prime Minister of the Montenegrin 
Government-in-exile, a man who lived through turbulent times, from his birth 
at Vuciji Dol in Ceklici, through Kotor and Cetinje, to Moscow, St. 
Petersburg, Paris, Warsaw, the Mid and the Far East, Central Asia, Rome and 
Washington, only to return in his last years to Cetinje and his birthplace in 
Vuci Dol, where he was buried in 1935.
    As Vujacic relates it, Dr. Anto Gvozdenovic was born in 1853 in Vuciji 
Dol. After graduating from the Cetinje Seminary, thanks to the backing of his 
godfather Prince Nicholas, he went on to study medicine in Moscow. An 
exceptional personality in many respects, overpoweringly intelligent, 
Gvozdenovic won over his colleagues and professors who choose him as student 
representative at congresses in Berlin and London. 
    Following his studies, Dr. Gvozdenovic joined the Imperial Russian Army 
and, under the command of General Skobelyev, took part in the expedition 
against Turkmenistan.
    Gvozdenovic's “personality, virtue and selfless courage came to the 
attention of General Skobelyev who, following the war, took him, as his 
personal friend, through the highest circles of Russian society. These were 
Russian diplomats and their ladies, the Court and the nobility, the officer 
corps, ministers and various others. 
    Dr. Gvozdenovic was a natural gentleman and he quickly became a social 
favorite.
    In 1904, Dr. Gvozdenovic, “the knight and gentleman' went to Manchuria in 
order to defend the Slav East from Japan. Here he attained higher glory and 
recognition in the Russo-Japanese War: besides the high Russian medal of St. 
Stanislav with swords, he received the rank of General of the Imperial Army.
    Well known to the Tsar and his inner circle, General Gvozdenovic was also 
a familiar figure at practically all the European courts. Here he enjoyed a 
reputation as the holder of refined manners and of high culture, who spoke a 
number of European languages, and as a man who made a point of being a 
Montenegrin, proud of the Katunska clan of the Montenegrin Royal Dynasty of 
Petrovic-Njegosh, to which he belonged by birth. 
    Born in the rocky landscape under Mount Lovcen, he carried the marks of 
his birthplace and region, wrought of the same kind of his ancestors.
    He returned to Montenegro whenever he could and whenever there was a 
need. Back in 1876, as a student of Moscow University, upon hearing the news 
of a war with Turkey, he went back to Montenegro to participate in the 
defense of its freedom. His contribution in this war was immeasurable. An 
intellectual and a polyglot, Gvozdenovic was assigned as an interpreter to V. 
Stillman, famous English publicist, painter and journalist and correspondent 
for the London Times.  
    At the time Britain, in tune with its Bosporus policy, was on the side of 
the Turks in this war. However, Stillman's reports, articles and books, 
written under the great influence of Anto Gvozdenovic, are filled with 
admiration for Montenegro, its history and its just battle for freedom. 
Stillman's texts greatly contributed to turning British public opinion in 
favor of Montenegro in her efforts to free the subjugated Balkan peoples. 
Even Gladstone himself spoke in favor of Montenegro, while Tennyson wrote his 
"Ode to Montenegro," one of the most beautiful songs devoted to this state. 
    Although already at a relatively advanced age, the news of the First 
Balkan War again saw the General return to Montenegro to fight for its 
freedom as a volunteer. 
    During World War I, after exile from Montenegro,  Dr. Gvozdenovic was 
enlisted by France to be the Deputy Chief of its Medical Corps. During the 
battles that raged on the Western Front, carrying the insignia of the French 
Army, Gvozdenovic stood in the front ranks. In the later stages of this war, 
General Gvozdenovic once again placed himself at the disposal of King 
Nicholas, in the role of adjutant, ADC and personal adviser. 
    Following Montenegro's capitulation, General Dr. Anto Gvozdenovic 
remained permanently at King Nicholas's side and accompanied him on many 
diplomatic missions to European courts and to Allied front lines.
    As one of the accounts from the rich and often adventurous life of Dr. 
Anto Gvozdenovic has it, one time in Petersburg, gambling with high nobles, 
including the Tsar's cousins, he won an enormous sum of money. His partners, 
sore at their loss, set a trap for General Gvozdenovic and managed to win 
back all the money from him. This affair caused a storm of reaction, 
disturbing the Tsar himself. To the Tsar's direct question as to whether any 
of the people in his family had acted in any way unbecoming a nobleman, Dr 
Gvozdenovic declared, "I play only with gentlemen. My partners were princes 
and generals, and princes and generals can be nothing other than gentlemen." 
    General Anto Gvozdenovic died on September 2, 1935 in the house he had 
built for himself in the grounds of his ancestral home. It was recorded that 
his last words were, "So, I am packing! Traveling off," as he twirled his 
gold pendant with four engraved aces, he said, "This is my only memento of 
Monte Carlo, where I played as a champion of the Russian Tsar. All has passed 
and all passes."

THE LOVES AND AFFAIRS

Dr. Anto Gvozdenovic spent a great deal of his free time in the Salons of 
high society, in theaters and the most distinguished clubs, often in the 
company of exquisite ladies of society.
    His relationship with a certain beauty from the high Russian nobility 
dates from this time period. A countess from Moscow was also among Dr. 
Gvozdenovic's many lovers.
    However, his greatest love was certainly a princess from the former 
ruling Lithuanian dynasty, Princess Katerina Radziwill, the aunt of President 
John F Kennedy's wife, Jacqueline Kennedy-Onasis. 
    Apart from her indescribable beauty, the Princess also possessed great 
academic distinction. It remains a secret as to why their love was not 
crowned by marriage. Still, Katerina talked of Anto's forestallment with a 
touching sincerity, she was never discouraged and was unshakably convinced 
that they were made for each other. As far as is known, Dr. Anto 
Gvozdenovic's last lover was Emma MacSwinney, a Polish countess by descent. 
Despite the fact that Anto was 67 at the time, the countess couldn't resist 
his charms.

MOURNING IN MONTE CARLO

Dr. Anto Gvozdenovic was a warrior, whose fame spread throughout Bulgaria, 
Turkmenia, Manchuria, through the Balkan Wars, a man of a diplomatic spirit 
and before all an adventurer, about whom diverse anecdotes were told in many 
of the world's metropolises.
    Enjoying many privileges, as did the entire Russian nobility to which he 
himself
belonged, Dr. Gvozdenovic traveled a great deal, spending a good part of his 
time in well known gambling spots. At that time, gambling was a kind of a bon 
ton for high circles and was very fashionable.
    Dr. Batricevic, the biographer of General Gvozdenovic has written, that 
Gvozdenovic was not an especially talented player at the table. But he liked 
society and games of chance and it was secondary to him as to whether he won 
or lost. However, one exploit in particular will be remembered for the eight 
sleepless nights at the Monte Carlo casino. Here General Gvozdenovic broke 
the bank, cleaning out the entire reserves of the famous casino forcing the 
managers to raise a black flag over the building and cover the gaming tables 
with green cloth and the colors of mourning until the debt was settled. 
    According to one version, Dr. Gvozdenovic won a sum of six and a half 
million gold francs on this occasion, added to his already considerable 
wealth, This made him, in an instant one of the wealthiest men in Europe. 
Having in mind that the building of the Eiffel Tower cost something less than 
eight million francs, one can imagine the kind of sum this was. 
    But in order to make it back to his regiment in time, General Gvozdenovic 
was forced to commission an entire train. Journalists at the time recorded 
the sensation, claiming that one of the cabins contained Gvozdenovic's hat, a 
second his cane, a third his coat and a fourth the general himself and his 
female companions.

PERSIAN ARMOR

Among the numerous exhibits of exceptional value held in Montenegro's 
National Historical Museum, prominent position is given to a suit of Persian 
armor that belonged to Dr. Anto Gvozdenovic. This rare work of art dates from 
a time when art flourished in the East. The lettering and rich ornamentation 
indicate that the armor was made in Persia, during the period before the use 
of the gun. The exquisitely worked gold decoration, the richness of the 
ornamentation and the beauty of the craftsmanship undoubtedly show that the 
armor to have been the property of a high Eastern feudal lord or ruler. The 
armor, along with the Order of St. Vladimir with crossed swords, were 
presented to Dr Anto Gvozdenovic in 1881 by General Skobelyev, in a citation 
that read “for courage, intrepidness and military skill displayed in wars in 
Bulgaria and Turkmenistan'.

BASTADURI CRNOGORSKE ISTORIJE: 
DR ANTO GVOZDENOVIC, GENERAL TRI VOJSKE, LJEKAR, DIPLOMATA, GRADJANIN 
SVIJETA, I PRIJE SVEGA CRNOGORAC

Vitez i Dzentlmen

Uvijek i svuda dr Anto Gvozdenovic je bio svjestan da ne predstavlja samo 
sebe licno. U njemu je okolina postovala njegovu otadzbinu Crnu Goru, i bez 
obzira na njegove licne vojnicke i naucne uspjehe, on je bio nosilac 
visevjekovne slave Crne Gore

Medju najznamenitije ljude koje je odnjivila Crna Gora bez sumnje moze se 
uvrstiti dr Anto Gvozdenovic, izuzetna licnost crnogorske istorije iz sredine 
devetnaestog i pocetka dvadesetog vijeka. Za dosezanje tih visina trebalo je 
mnogo dara i sposobnosti, mnogo hrabrosti i pregalastva, mnogo licnih zrtava 
i vjere u pravilnost izbora i zivotnog puta. Licnost dr Anta Gvozdenovica 
znacajna je posebno zato sto je svojim postupcima i svojim moralom, 
najjezgrovitije izrazila moralne vrijednosti crnogorskog naroda, kome je Ante 
pripadao bez ostatka. Nepokolebljivo je vjerovao da je predano sluzenje svom 
narodu i otadzbini najveci domet covjekovih teznji. Neprekidno je stremio tom 
cilju. NJegove zasluge, predanost i pozrtvovanost, a iznad svega licna 
odvaznost, pribavile su mu sve pocasti, narocito u vrijeme kada je drzava 
Crna Gora dozivjela tesku nesrecu (1918), i njegovo ime je s pravom ostalo 
upisano medju imenima mnogih velikana Crne Gore. O licnosti i djelu ovog 
bastadura crnogorske istorije, i gradjanina svijeta, koji se sa ponosom 
uvijek i svuda osjecao i govorio Crnogorcem, razgovarali smo sa direktorom 
Istorijskog muzeja Crne Gore na Cetinju, gospodinom Velimirom Vujacicom.
- U iscrpnoj i dokumentovanoj monografiji â€×Dr Anto Gvozdenovic, general u tri 
vojske, Crnogorci u Rusko-japanskom ratu", dr DJuro Batricevic je detaljno 
opisao zivotni put dr Anta Gvozdenovica, poznatog vojnog hirurga, 
proslavljenog generala u Ruskoj vojsci zamjenika nacelnika saniteta Francuske 
armije, djeneral - adjutanta kralja Nikole, prvog i posljednjeg crnogorskog 
ambasadora u SAD-u, a poslije smrti kralja Nikole, mandatara i posljednjeg 
predsjednika crnogorske vlade u emigraciji, covjeka koji je prosao burna 
previranja svijeta od rodnog Vucijeg dola u Ceklicima, preko Kotora i Cetinja 
do Moskve, Petrovgrada, Pariza, Varsave, Bliskog i Dalekog istoka, Srednje 
Azije, Rima i Vasingtona, da bi se u poznim godinama ponovo vratio na Cetinje 
i u rodne Ceklice, gdje je sahranjen 1935. godine, navodi Velimir Vujacic.
- Dr Anto Gvozdenovic, nastavlja Vujacic, je rodjen 1853. godine, u Vucijem 
dolu u Ceklicima. Poslije zavrsetka Cetinjske bogoslovije, zauzimanjem knjaza 
Nikole odlazi na studije medicine u Moskvi. Izuzetna licnost po mnogim svojim 
osobinama, nadmocno inteligentan, Gvozdenovic osvaja svoje kolege i 
profesore, koji ga biraju za predstavnika na studentskim kongresima u Berlinu 
i Londonu. Po zavrsetku studija, dr Gvozdenovic stupa u Rusku armiju, i pod 
komandom generala Skobeljeva ucestvuje u ekspediciji na Turkmestan. 
Gvozdenoviceva licnost, njegove vrline, hrabrost i pozrtvovanost, skrecu 
paznju generala Skobeljeva, koji ga poslije zavrsetka rata, kao licnog 
prijatelja i saradnika, uvodi u najvise krugove ruskog drustva. Bili su to 
diplomate sa svojim damama, dvorsko i nize plemstvo, oficirski Kor, ministri, 
razni velikodostojnici... U ovim krugovima dr Gvozdenovic dobija priliku za 
ispoljavanje svojih dzentlmentskih osobina i postoje ljubimac drustva. Uvijek 
i svuda on je bio svjestan da ne predstavlja samo sebe licno, a okolina je u 
njemu postovala njegovu otadzbinu, i bez obzira na njegove vojnicke i naucne 
uspjehe, on je bio nosilac visevjekovne slave Crne Gore, naglasava Velimir 
Vujacic.
Naravno, nastavlja on, da je lak, â€×ukusan" i neodoljivo otmen nacin kojim je 
on tu slavu reprezentovao, bio izuzetno vazan, a ono sto je odlikovalo njega 
samog, bio je cak i za njegove ucene profesore neobicno visok stepen 
obrazovanja, koji je izazivao isto toliko cudjenja kao i postovanja.
Godine 1904. dr Gvozdenovic potvrdjuje ono sto je pokazao u turkmenstanskoj 
ekspediciji: vitez i dzentlmen odlazi u Mandzuriju da od Japana brani 
slovenski istok. U Rusko-japanskom ratu stice nove zasluge i priznanja: pored 
visokog ruskog ordena sv. Stanislava sa macevima, dobija i cin armijskog 
generala.
Osim u najotmenijem drustvu caristicke Rusije, dr Gvozdenovic je bio poznat i 
na gotovo svim evropskim dvorovima. U tim krugovima uzivao je glas istinskog 
dzentlmena sa najrafiniranijim manirima. Bio je to covjek visoke kulture, sa 
znanjem velikog broja evropskih jezika, a inace, kroz civat svoj zivotni 
vijek, kako je to sam govorio, pravi Crnogorac - Katunjanin. Rodjen u 
klasicnom kamenu ispod Lovcena, nosio je obiljezja svoga kraja i podneblja. 
Taj vidik se nikada nije suzio pred njegovim ocima. Dr Anto Gvozdenovic, 
â€×Kulturni evropejac", bio je u stvari saliven od iste vrste celika kao sto su 
to bili i njegovi preci.
U Crnu Goru se vracao kad god je mogao, i kad se za to ukazala potreba. Jos 
1876. godine, kao nesvrseni student moskovskog Univerziteta, na vijest o ratu 
s Turskom uputio se u Crnu Goru da ucestvuje u odbrani njene slobode. NJegov 
doprinos u ovom ratu bio je nemjerljiv. Intelektualac i poliglota, 
Gvozdenovic je dodijeljen kao prevodilac V. Stilmanu, cuvenom engleskom 
publicisti, slikaru i novinaru, dopisniku londonskog â€×Tajmsa". Treba imati u 
vidu, nastavlja dalje Velimir Vujacic, da je zvanicna Engleska, u skladu sa 
svojom bosforskom politikom, u ovom ratu bila na strani Turske. Medjutim, iz 
Stilmanovih izvjestaja, reportaza i knjiga, pisanih pod velikim uticajem Anta 
Gvozdenovica, provijava odusevljenje Crnom Gorom, njenom istorijom i 
opravdanom borbom za oslobodjenje. Stilmanovi tekstovi su u mnogome 
doprinijeli da se javno mnjenje u Engleskoj okrene na stranu Crne Gore i 
njenih napora za oslobodjenje potlacenih balkanskih naroda. Cak je i sam 
Gledston, predsjednik engleske vlade, govorio u prilog Crne Gore, a lord 
Alfred Tenison pise â€×Odu Crnoj Gori", jednu od najljepsih pjesama o ovoj 
drzavi.
Mada u poodmaklim godinama, na vijest o izbijanju Prvog balkanskog rata, dr 
Gvozdenovic je ponovo dosao u Crnu Goru, da se kao dobrovoljac bori za njenu 
slobodu. U Prvom svjetskom ratu, dr Gvozdenovica je angazovala Francuska u 
svojstvu zamjenika nacelnika saniteta njene Armije. Za citavo vrijeme borbi 
na zapadnom frontu, Gvozdenovic se, sa generalskim oznakama francuske vojske 
nalazio u prvim borbenim redovima. U kasnijoj fazi ovog rata, dr Gvozdenovic 
se ponovo stavio na raspolaganje kralju Nikoli kao adjutant i licni 
savjetnik. Poslije kapitulacije Crne Gore, general dr Ante Gvozdenovic se 
uvijek nalazio uz kralja Nikolu, pratio ga je u mnogim diplomatskim misijama 
po evropskim dvorovima i na saveznickim frontovima.
Inace, kao jedan od detalja iz bogatog, a nerijetko i avanturistickog zivota 
dr Anta Gvozdenovica, zabiljezeno je da je jednom prilikom u Petrovgradu, u 
kockarskoj igri sa visokim plemicima, medju kojima su se nalazili i sami 
carevi rodjaci, dobio ogromnu svotu. Plemici su namjestili dr Gvozdenovicu 
zamku, i prevarom uspjeli da od njega dobiju ogromnu sumu novca. Ova afera je 
izazvala pravu buru reagovanja i uznemirila samog cara. Na carevo pitanje da 
li je neko iz njegove okoline postupao na nacin koji ne dolikuje plemicima, 
dr Gvozdenovic je izjavio: â€×Ja igram samo sa dzentlmenima. Moji partneri su 
bili knezevi i generali, a knezevi i generali mogu biti samo dzentlmeni".
General Anto Gvozdenovic preminuo je 2. septembra 1935. godine. Zabiljezeno 
je da su mu posljednje rijeci bile: â€×Dakle, ja se pakujem! Putujem.", i 
nastavio, vrteci zlatni privezak sa ugravirana cetiri asa: â€×Ovo mi je jedina 
uspomena na Monte Karlo, gdje sam kao kavalir cara ruskoga igrao. Sve je 
proslo, i sve prolazi".

 LJUBAVNICE
Veliki dio svog slobodnog vremena, dr Ante Gvozdenovic je utrosio provodeci 
se u mondenskim salonima, pozoristima i najotmenijim klubovima, uglavnom u 
drustvu otmenih dama iz najvisih staleza. Iz ovog perioda datira i njegova 
veza sa izvjesnom ljepoticom iz visokog aristokratskog ruskog drustva. Jedna 
od mnogih ljubavnica dr Gvozdenovica, bila je i jedna grofica iz Moskve. Ali 
njegova najveca ljubav bila je svakako princeza iz vladajuce litvanske 
dinastije, Ekaterina Radzivil, koja je inace bila rodjena tetka Zakline 
Kenedi-Onazis. Ova plemkinja je pored neopisive ljepote, posjedovala veliko 
obrazovanje i otmenost. Zbog cega njihova ljubav nije krunisana brakom, 
prekriveno je velom tajne. Ekaterina je ipak, sa dirljivom iskrenoscu, 
govorila o Antovim izvlacenjima, koja je uostalom nijesu obeshrabrivala, s 
obzirom na njeno nepokolebljivo uvjerenje da su stvoreni jedno za drugo.
Koliko je poznato, posljednja ljubav dr Anta Gvozdenovica bila je Ema Mak 
Svinej, grofica, porijeklom Poljakinja. I pored toga sto je Anto tada imao 67 
godina, grofica nije mogla odoljeti njegovom sarmu.

KOROTA U MONTE KARLU

Doktor Anto Gvozdenovic bio je ratnik cija se slava sirila prostranstvima 
Bugarske, Turkmenije, Mandzurije, kroz balkanske i Prvi svjetski rat, covjek 
diplomatskog duha, a nadasve avanturista, o cijem su se zivotu u mnogim 
svjetskim metropolama ispredale najrazlicitije anegdote. Buduci da je uzivao 
velike privilegije, uotalom kao i citavo rusko plemstvo, kome je i sam 
pripadao, dr Gvozdenovic je mnogo putovao, provodeci dobar dio vremena po 
barovima i poznatim svjetskim kockarnicama. U to vrijeme kockanje je u 
visokim krugovima predstavljalo svojevrsni bonton, i bilo u velikoj modi. 
Prema svjedocenju dr Batricevica, general Gvozdenovic nije bio narocito 
talentovan za hazardne igre. On je vise volio da se nadje u otmjenom drustvu, 
koje se zabavljalo kockom, a da li ce dobiti ili izgubiti novac, za njega je 
bilo sasvim sporedno. Medjutim, ono po cemu ce ostati zapamcen, jesu osam 
besanih noci provedenih u kockarnici Monte Karlo, gdje je pokupo sav novac 
cuvenog Kazina, i primorao vlasnika da na kockarnici istakne crnu zastavu, a 
zelenu coju na kockarskim stolovima prekrije korotnom bojom. Po jednoj 
verziji, dr Gvozdenovic je ovom prilikom dobio sumu od sest i po miliona 
zlatnih franaka. Ako se ima u vidu da je izgradnja Ajfelove kule kostala 
nepunih osam miliona franaka, moze se naslutiti kolika je ovo suma bila. Da 
bi tada na vrijeme stigao u svoj puk, general Gvozdenovic je zakupio citavu 
zeljeznicku kompoziciju. Novinari su zabiljezili da se u jednom kupeu nalazio 
Gvozdenovicev sesir, u drugom stap, u trecem mantil, a u cetvrtom sam general 
sa ljubavnicom.

PERSIJSKI OKLOP
Medju brojnim, izuzetno vrijednim eksponatima koji se cuvaju u Istorijskom 
muzeju Crne Gore, znacajno mjesto zauzima metalni oklop koji je pripadao dr 
Antu Gvozdenovicu. Ovaj izuzetan umjetnicki rad nastao je u vrijeme cvjetanja 
umjetnickih zanata na Istoku. Pismo i bogata ornamentika upucuju na zakljucak 
da je oklop radjen u Persiji, u vrijeme prije primjene vatrenog oruzja. 
Aplikacija zlata uradjena na nevjerovatno vjest nacin, bogatstvo ukrasa i 
ljepota izrade, nedvosmisleno ukazuju da je oklop pripadao nekom visokom 
istocnjackom feudalcu, mozda cak i vladaru. Oklop je zajedno sa ordenom sv. 
Vladimira sa macevima, dr Antu Gvozdenovicu urucio 1881. godine general 
Mihailo Skobeljev, proslavljeni ruski vojskovodja - za pokazanu hrabrost, 
odvaznost i vojnicku vjestinu u ratovima u Bugarskoj i Turkmestanu, navodi 
izmedju ostalog Velimir Vujacic.

Andrija Rackovic
 


King Nikola and his family at their last holiday in Topolica - Bar (1914)

King Nikola and his family on their last summer vacation in Montenegro - August 1914

TOPOLICA PALACE BAR August 1914

Crown Prince Danilo, Princess Xenia, King Nikola I,  Princess Vera, Crown Princess Militza, Crown Prince Aleksandar of Serbia, General Anto Gvozdenovic

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